The Science of Learning: How students process information.

Education is at the heart of our society, and teachers play a pivotal role in shaping the minds of our future generations. But have you ever stopped to wonder how students actually process information? What happens in their brains when they learn something new? We delved into the fascinating world of the science of learning to uncover the intricacies of how students absorb and retain information.

Research in the field of cognitive neuroscience has revealed that learning is a complex process that involves multiple brain regions working together in harmony. When students encounter new information, their brains go through a series of steps to process and store it effectively. Let’s take a closer look at these steps to gain a deeper understanding of the science of learning.

Step 1: Attention and Encoding

Students need to be fully engaged and focused on the task at hand to absorb new information. The prefrontal cortex, a region of the brain responsible for attention and concentration, plays a pivotal role in this process. Strategies such as using multimedia, incorporating real-world examples, and asking thought-provoking questions can all enhance students’ attention and encoding of new information.

Step 2: Sensory Input

Once students are paying attention, sensory input comes into play. Our senses, such as sight, sound, and touch, allow us to perceive the world around us. The information from our senses is processed in specialised areas of the brain, such as the visual cortex for visual information and the auditory cortex for auditory information. Hands-on activities, visuals, and music can all enhance sensory input and stimulate multiple areas of the brain.

Step 3: Processing and Integration

After sensory input, the brain processes and integrates the new information with existing knowledge and memories. This happens in the hippocampus, a region of the brain known for its role in memory formation. When we connect new information with prior knowledge, it strengthens the neural pathways in their brains, making the information more durable and retrievable. We can facilitate this process by encouraging students to make connections between new information and their own experiences, prior knowledge, or other subjects they have learned.

Step 4: Consolidation and Storage

Once information is processed and integrated, it needs to be consolidated and stored in long-term memory. This process occurs during sleep, when the brain replays and consolidates the day’s events. Teachers can emphasise the importance of sleep hygiene and encourage students to establish healthy sleep habits to support their learning.

Step 5: Retrieval and Application

The ultimate goal of learning is to be able to retrieve and apply the information when needed. Retrieval practice, or the act of recalling information from memory, has been shown to be one of the most effective strategies for enhancing long-term retention. Incorporating regular retrieval practice activities, such as quizzes, discussions, and problem-solving tasks, helps students strengthen their retrieval and application skills.

As teachers, the science of learning can empower you to optimise your teaching strategies and create more effective and engaging learning experiences.

What are your thoughts on the science of learning and how do you apply it in your teaching practices? Let us know in the comments below.

This article was written by the TeacherHaven team, help us support education by contributing to our blog, email us at

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